Anatomical Terminology | Anatomy & Physiology
You will be able to describe the body's regions using the terms from the figure. The pelvis is inferior to the abdomen. The thoracic cavity is enclosed by the rib cage and contains the lungs and the heart, which is located in the mediastinum. . Spinal and Cranial Nerves · Relationship of the PNS to the Spinal. Anatomical terms of location are vital to understanding, and using anatomy. Abdomen . Putting this in context, the heart is posterior to the sternum because it lies They describe the position of a structure with reference to its origin and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be. Popular culture tends to refer to the stomach as the location where all The cardia (or cardiac region) is the point where the esophagus connects to Table 6 describes the digestive functions of important hormones secreted by the stomach.
Abdominal CAT scans are often transverse plane slices like a stack of coins. The three basic planes intersect at right angles to each other. When the three basic planes intersect in the center of the body as seen in the image to the right they can be used to describe various relationships within the body. Main Reference Planes Sagittal plane median, wheel — this vertical top to bottom plane divides the body into left and right sides; a plane that divides the body down the middle into equal left and right sides is the Median Sagittal Plane.
Body Cavities Body cavities are areas in the body that contain our internal organs. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two main cavities. The dorsal cavity is on the posterior back side of the body and contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity.
In human anatomy, dorsal, caudal and posterior mean the same thing. The ventral cavity is on the front anterior of the body and is divided into the thoracic cavity chest and abdominopelvic cavity. Dorsal Cavity The dorsal cavity is further divided into subcavities: Ventral Cavity The ventral cavity is on the front of the trunk. The diaphragm the main muscle of breathing divides the ventral cavity into two simple subcavities: It is further divided into the pleural cavities left and right which contain the lungs, bronchi, and the mediastinum which contains the heart, pericardial membranes, large vessels of the heart, trachea windpipeupper esophagus, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and other blood vessels and nerves.
The abdominal cavity is between the diaphragm and the pelvis. It is lined with a membrane and contains the stomach, lower part of the esophagus, small and large intestines except sigmoid and rectumspleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidneys and ureters. The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs and the rectum. The thoracic cavity is open at the top and the abdominal cavity is open at the bottom.
Both cavities are bound on the back by the spine. Even though their location is defined, the shape of these cavities can change. How they change is very different. Breathing is the main way the shape of these two cavities changes. The abdominal cavity changes shape similar to a water-filled balloon.
When you squeeze the balloon, the shape changes as the balloon bulges.
- Anatomy and physiology of the stomach
- Anatomical Terms of Location
- Anatomy and Physiology Questions
The muscularis propria or muscularis externa is the next layer that covers the submucosa. It is the main muscle of the stomach and is made up of 3 layers of muscle. The serosa is the fibrous membrane that covers the outside of the stomach. The serosa of the stomach is also called the visceral peritoneum.
Function The stomach has 3 main functions: The mucosa in the cardiac and pyloric regions of the stomach release mucus that helps protect the lining of the stomach from the acid produced for digestion. Other specialized cells in the mucosa of the pylorus release the hormone gastrin into the blood. Gastrin helps to stimulate the release of acid and enzymes from the mucosa.
Gastrin also helps the muscles of the stomach to start contracting. Food is broken down into a thick, acidic, soupy mixture called chyme. The pyloric sphincter relaxes once chyme formation is complete. Chyme then passes into the duodenum.
Anatomical Terms & Meaning: Anatomy Regions, Planes, Areas, Directions
The duodenum plays a big role in absorption of the food we eat. The stomach does not play a big role in absorption of food. The root of a term often refers to an organ, tissue, or condition, whereas the prefix or suffix often describes the root. Anatomical Position To further increase precision, anatomists standardize the way in which they view the body.
The upper limbs are held out to each side, and the palms of the hands face forward as illustrated in [link]. Using this standard position reduces confusion. It does not matter how the body being described is oriented, the terms are used as if it is in anatomical position. Regions of the Human Body Figure 1. The regions of the body are labeled in boldface. A body that is lying down is described as either prone or supine.
Prone describes a face-down orientation, and supine describes a face up orientation. These terms are sometimes used in describing the position of the body during specific physical examinations or surgical procedures. Directional Terms Certain directional anatomical terms appear throughout this and any other anatomy textbook [link].
These terms are essential for describing the relative locations of different body structures. Commit these terms to memory to avoid confusion when you are studying or describing the locations of particular body parts.
Anterior or ventral describes the front or direction toward the front of the body. The toes are anterior to the foot. Posterior or dorsal describes the back or direction toward the back of the body. The popliteus is posterior to the patella. Superior or cranial describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper. The orbits are superior to the oris.
Inferior or caudal describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column. The pelvis is inferior to the abdomen.