Baseball Swing vs. Softball Swing (CONT.) - The Hitting Vault
NPR's Scott Simon talks with neurophysiologist Jason Sherwin about his research into how a baseball batter processes an incoming fastball. Baseball and cricket are the best-known members of a family of related bat-and- ball games. Other present-day bat-and-ball games include softball, stickball, rounders . Each run in a baseball game is roughly 75 times as important as a run in a Test .. One response to this phenomenon is that many hitters, among them a. If you play baseball or fast pitch softball, you are all too familiar with the difficulty of hitting a well thrown fastball. It takes less than a half second for a fastball to.
However, to cause dismissal, the ball must be adjudged to be going onto hit the wicket, and therefore be relatively low, where batsmen are mostly protected by padding. A fast bowler will punctuate his overs with deliveries intended to bounce up toward the batsman's head, either to induce a poor shot which can be either defensive or attacking which may result in the batsman being caught out, or to intimidate the batsman, making him less likely to play forward to the next few deliveries for fear of injury.
These tactics have long been an accepted part of cricket. In the modern game, batsmen usually wear helmets and heavy padding, so that being struck by the ball only rarely results in significant injury—though it is nevertheless often painful, sometimes causing concussion or fractures although it can also have fatal consequences: Catchers typically wear a helmet with a cage or protective bars.
An equivalent ball to striking the batter in baseball would be a beamerwhere the ball hits the batter's upper body area without bouncing first.
These are rare and usually caused by the ball slipping out of the top of the bowler's hand. The even rarer intentional beamer provokes strong reaction from batter and crowd alike. The umpire is authorised to take disciplinary action in such instances.Sport Science The Speed of Softball
The bowler is generally given a first warning, and is dismissed from the game if the offence is repeated. A notable such case was between Waqar Younis and Andrew Symonds: Younis was banned from bowling by umpire David Shepherd for delivering a beamer to Symonds in a match between Pakistan and Australia at the World Cup ; it was the first of only two times it's ever happened during an international match.
There is a major difference in the way in which different bowlers or pitchers contribute to a single game. In baseball, a single pitcher starts the game, and makes every pitch until the manager replaces the tiring pitcher with a relief pitcher. Replaced pitchers cannot return to pitch again in the same game unless they are shuttled to another position in the field and thus stay in the line-up, a move rarely seen in the major leaguesand a succession of pitchers may come into the game in sequence until it ends.
In cricket, two bowlers begin the game, with those not actively bowling spending time as fielders. Every player in the team, including the wicket-keeper but excluding the 12th man, is available to be used as a bowler. Bowlers alternate bowling overs of six balls each. A bowler will usually bowl for a 'spell' of several alternate overs, and will generally bowl the entire spell from the same end of the pitch.
A second bowler will bowl the overs missed by the first, from the other end of the pitch, for his own spell. After a bowler is taken off, he may be, and often is, asked to bowl another spell later in the same innings. Although moving a pitcher to a fielding position and returning him to pitch later in the game is legal in baseball, it is a rarely used and potentially risky strategy, as the pitcher may be unprepared to play another position.
The terms "bowling" and "pitching", as words, both denote underarm deliveries, as were once required in both games.
The rules for delivery were also initially very similar. Once overhand deliveries were permitted in the respective sports, and pitchers were compelled to toe the pitching rubber instead of throwing from anywhere within the "pitcher's box", the actions of bowling and pitching diverged significantly.
The " wide " in cricket and the " ball " in baseball both derive from the concept of a "fair" delivery, i. While there is no sharply defined "strike zone" in cricket as there is in baseball but there are lines known as the return creases perpendicular to the other crease lines which the umpires can use as a guide, and in limited overs cricket specific wide lines are painted on the pitch 17 inches Both the "wide" and the "ball" result in a "penalty".
In cricket, like a no-ball, a single run is awarded to the battling team and it does not count as a legal delivery. In baseball, a ball is called, and if a pitcher gives up four balls the batter is awarded first base, which is called a "base on balls" or a "walk". A walk will only score a run directly if the bases are already loaded, forcing the runner at third base to advance to home known as "walking in a run" ; otherwise the threat is merely of another runner reaching base instead of making an out.
However, since runs are scored so much more frequently in cricket, the occasional wide, scoring a run directly, is not taken too seriously, although the extra delivery can be of vital significance toward the end of a match. In both games, a wide or a ball can be the decisive factor in winning a match or a game. Running[ edit ] Running plays a much larger role in baseball because of the low scoring; also, players on the batting team must run much further to score a run, because runners may remain in play that is, on the bases without scoring, and because baserunners can advance to the next base before the ball is hit again steal the base as soon as the ball is live.
Base stealing often requires slidingin which the runner throws himself to the ground to avoid being tagged or over-running the base. The runner may also deliberately slide into the fielder at the base he is trying to steal to keep him from catching the ball or to disrupt a double play. At home plate the runner often will simply, and legally, run into a catcher who is blocking the baseline but who does not have the ball a defensive player may not impede the runner unless he has the ball or is in the process of catching it.
The equivalent in cricket is almost impossible because the bowler is next to the non-striker, and in fact was once able to mankad him if he strayed out of his crease. Tactical running in cricket rarely strays beyond the consideration of "can I make it to the other end before the ball does".
One exception of this is towards the end of a closely fought limited overs game, where a batsman normally a tail-ender would sacrifice his wicket to allow the better batsman to remain on strike, usually in the last few balls. While in baseball, steals, sacrificial running, forces, double plays, intimidation, and physical contact enter into the equation.
Making contact with a fielder, as baserunners often do, would be unsportsmanlike in cricket, and unnecessary, as play stops when a single wicket is taken. Occasionally a cricket runner will dive over the crease, but in baseball this is a regular occurrence, as players are frequently forced to run even when their chances are slim.
Since a team almost always scores fewer runs in a baseball game than its number of outs, a baserunner will frequently take risks attempting to advance an extra base or to score a run, resulting in close plays at a base. In cricket, since the number of runs scored is much greater than the number of wickets taken in a match, a batsman would be very foolish to risk getting run out in an attempt to score an extra run without a very high expected chance of success.
In baseball, runners are often out not of their own accord — they are simply forced out. Game length[ edit ] A direct comparison is difficult since cricket is predominantly played in three different formats: Of these, the Twenty20 format takes much the same time as a baseball game: Baseball games are generally much shorter than Test and One Day cricket games.
Most Major League Baseball games last between two-and-a-half and four-and-a-half hours. Because the Major League playing season is 6 months long days, between April and October with spring training in February and Marchwith 81 games played at home and 81 away in all, not counting the postseason or the All-Star Gamebaseball teams often find themselves playing double-headers and series games.
A doubleheader entails two games, played back to back, in one day. This usually occurs when a game needed to be rescheduled, and is a common occurrence at the beginning of the Major League season, which coincides with the rainy spring season. Although they were once common, double-headers are rarely scheduled any more by teams, but are part of the culture of baseball, with Ernie Banks ' "Let's play two" a famous refrain. A series occurs when two teams play on several consecutive days.
This is a part of the regular schedule in baseball because of the number of games required in a season, and because there are large distances between stadiums in the US and Canada, thus conserving time and resources by allowing the teams to spend several days in a single location.
In Major League Baseball there is a maximum of 20 days consecutively played before a break in games must be observed. In cricket, test matches and certain domestic first class matches can last up to five days, with scheduled breaks each day for lunch and tea, giving three sessions of play each day. Full length games, for example between English counties or between Australian states, have a similar format to Test matches, but either three or four days are allowed.
The limited overs versions of the sport usually last up to 7 hours. Twenty20 has innings of twenty overs per team and generally takes around 3 hours. One Day Internationals and Twenty20 cricket, with their inherent limit on the number of fair deliveries, do not have an exact equivalent in baseball. The closest comparison would be games that have a pre-set number of innings shorter than the standard 9 as with the second game of a doubleheader at some levels or a pre-set time limit of some kind, such as a curfew restriction, or in the case of one of baseball's cousins, recreational softball, a pre-set length of the game, such as one hour.
In winter ball Caribbean leagues doubleheaders are commonly pre-set to last 7 innings instead of 9, except if they are necessary as tiebreakers. Strategy[ edit ] A wide array of factors affect both games from composition of the pitch or field soil to weather conditions, wind, and moisture and numerous strategies in both games can be employed to exploit these factors.
Other than the bowler, cricket places very few restrictions on fielding placementeven for the wicket-keeper, and its variety of bowling styles, degrees of open field, wide bowling area target zoneand so on give scope for strategic play. Notable exceptions include the limit of two fielders in the leg side quadrant, introduced to prevent the use of Bodyline tactics, and limiting outfield players in the early stages of limited overs matches and the subsequent introduction of powerplays.
In baseball, there are very specific rules about the positions of the pitcher and the catcher at the start of each play. The positioning of the other seven fielders is as flexible as cricket, except that each one must start the play positioned in fair territory.
The fielders are otherwise free to position themselves anywhere on the playing field, based on the game situation. Condition of the ball[ edit ] A major element of strategy in these sports is the condition of the ball.
Since bowling in cricket has more variations such as bounce, swing, seam movement, off-spin, leg-spin and so onthe condition of the ball also affects play to a great degree. In Test cricket, the same ball must be used for at least 80 overs unless it is lost, damaged or illegally modified at which point it must be replaced with a used ball in a similar condition. After the 80 overs, obtaining a new ball is at the discretion of the fielding captain — who will often ask for a new ball immediately, since a new ball is harder, smoother, bounces higher and has an intact seam, which produces greater conventional swing.
But when a captain feels that a spin bowling attack is more likely to be successful, he will persist with the old ball, which is rougher and better grips the surface as well the bowler's fingers. In baseball the ball is replaced numerous times during a game to ensure it is in optimum condition. The aerodynamics of swing in cricket are different from baseball. Moreover, the raised seam also causes movement off the pitch in cricket, which is a very important part of medium pace bowling.
Once a particular hemisphere of the cricket ball is more rough or scratched than the other, the fielding team meticulously works to preserve the shine on the other half by rubbing it on their clothes or by applying saliva no "external" substances can be applied to alter the condition of the ball. Bowlers very carefully regulate their wrist position at the point of release to ensure the shine is preserved only on one half of the ball, since it will swing towards the rough side.
The old ball in cricket also tends to generate greater amounts of reverse swing, which is swing towards the polished side. Especially on pitches in the Indian sub-continent, which tend to have abrasive surfaces, bowlers might resort to bowling across the seam as early as the tenth over, so as to quickly scruff up the ball and generate reverse swing early on.
Strategies that rely on early reverse swing also need the backup of effective spin bowlers to be able to exploit the roughed up ball.
- Comparison of baseball and cricket
- RELATIONSHIP OF REACTION TIME TO THE SPEED OF A SOFTBALL.
- How A Baseball Batter's Brain Reacts To A Fast Pitch
Due to these factors, a batsman in cricket needs to watch very carefully how the bowler grips the ball even during his run-up, as well as the type of revolutions on the ball[ clarification needed ] as it approaches. Master spin bowlers like Shane Warne and Muttiah Muralitharan, who were able to dramatically vary the trajectory, direction and extent of spin, frequently bowled deliveries with a scrambled seam to disguise the type of ball actually bowled.
Batting first or last[ edit ] In cricket, since the strategies are greatly influenced by factors such as soil characteristics of the pitch, condition of the ball, time of the day, weather and atmospheric conditions, the decision to bat first or last is of great tactical importance.
The team that wins the coin toss has the choice of batting first or last. This choice can be crucial to success; particularly in Test cricket. As the pitch is used for up to five consecutive days with little maintenance, the deterioration of the pitch with wear can have a major influence on the result of the match e. It is usual for some amount of grass to be left on the pitch on the first day of a Test, since it helps bind the surface.
The presence of grass on the pitch is conducive for pace bowling, so a grassy pitch may also tempt a captain to field first. Sometimes, weather conditions also influence the decision, since a cloud especially overcast cloud cover has been found to assist swing bowling. Aggressive captains such as Allan Border of Australia have been known to bat first in Test cricket regardless of the conditions.
In One Day International cricket, the time of day is also a crucial factor in determining the captain's decision at the toss. In some parts of the world, dew on the ground can be significant.
In a day-night game, grounds in some countries like India or South Africa become wet due to dew, which makes it difficult for a spinner to grip the ball.
The captain must balance this against a consideration for bowling becoming more effective under lights, since the ball might skid off any dew on the pitch or get assistance in swing from the cooler night-time air. Even for a day game, the captain might be inclined to exploit early morning dew on the pitch. In baseball, on the other hand, the "home" team always bats last.
This was not originally the case.
How to Calculate Fastball Reaction Time
In the early years, the winner of a coin toss could decide whether to bat first or last. The more offence-oriented aspect of the early game might influence a team's decision to bat first and hope to get a quick lead. This led to the occasional unfortunate situation where the home town crowd would have to watch their team lose a game in the last of the ninth inning, in "sudden victory" fashion by the visiting team.
By the late s, the rule was changed to compel the home team to bat last. At a "neutral" site, such as the College World Seriesthe "home" team may be decided by coin toss, but that "home" team must bat last.
Fielding strategy[ edit ] The normal fielding arrangement in baseball. In cricket, since the batsmen can hit the ball with greater variation and different objectives, the field placements are more important and varied.
Modern-day coaches and captains have intricate knowledge of the strengths of opposition batsmen, so they try to plug the dominant scoring areas for each batsman. Moreover, since the bowling attack has greater variety in cricket, the field placements required for each type and line of attack also vary greatly. Depending on the scoring strengths of the batsman off-side, leg-side, straight, square, front foot, back foot, power hitter, "finds the gap", "clears the field" and so onthe captain must make adjustments to the field each time the batting pair score a run and change ends, which can possibly happen after every ball in an over.
How A Baseball Batter's Brain Reacts To A Fast Pitch : NPR
To meet the demands of a speedy over-rate typically, about 15 overs an hourthe captain must arrange the fielders in a way that they can swiftly interchange positions for the two batsmen.
And when your visual processing says this is a pitch I want to hit, it will then connect to the motor parts of the brain that allow you to then swing the bat and hopefully make contact with the ball. And how much time are we talking about? I mean, from release of the pitch until it gets to the plate, a mile-an-hour fastball is around milliseconds. Now, on the other side, it takes milliseconds on average for a Major League Baseball player to get their bat around.
So we're really shaving tens of milliseconds here in terms of in the middle where you have to decide on whether this is a pitch to hit or not. Are you deciding or does something else kick in? Is it a learned reaction? It's mostly a learned reaction.
I mean, there's some amount of reflexes, but in this case, it is a learned thing. Nobody is born with a gene for knowing how to hit a baseball. And it's something that's learned over time and is improved with experience. Now, you know, people have mocked Yogi Berra for years for saying, how do you expect a guy to think and hit at the same time? But he was on to something, wasn't he?
He was absolutely on to something. When we first started doing this work, we started seeing that when subjects were getting the pitches wrong, they were using the frontal parts of their brain too much. The frontal parts of the brain are mostly involved in deliberate decision-making. And when they get involved, they slow down the speed of your decisions.
And when you're up at the plate and you're facing a mile-an-hour fastball and you've got tens of milliseconds really to decide on whether you want to hit this thing or not, that's where that deliberate thinking is a problem.
So Yogi was really on to something there. I think a few things as being more important than this, than enhancing the game of baseball. But that being said, I wonder if there are other areas of human enterprise where this research can be applied. I mean, I originally started doing research on musicians, as I'm a musician myself, and I wanted to see how their brains reacted to when they listen to music.
And then that evolved very quickly into the U.