Christina Grimmie - Wikipedia
It was a two-gunned stranger — possibly a deranged fan — who murdered “The Voice” singer and YouTube star Christina Grimmie as she. The long read: Can you be convicted of a killing if you were there when At pm on Thursday 12 May , a young man named Abdul Wahab . The vast majority of homicides in England and Wales – like the vast majority of a defendant must meet two criteria: the first relates to their actions, and the. A Christina Grimmie fan has claimed she saw the singer greet her gunman with open arms before UK Edition · US Edition . Notable deaths in .. Two people were meeting Christina and there was one guy in front of us in line. Tributes have poured in for the singer since news of her tragic death.
In the meantime, the other two defendants went to a nearby house and armed themselves with knuckledusters and other weapons. In a second, more serious fight, which did not involve Mitchell or Hall, Ayres was killed. The two armed men were convicted of murder, but so too were Mitchell and Hall. Their convictions were upheld by an appeals court in October In another case often cited by campaigners against the abuse of joint enterprise, Jordan Cunliffe, who was then 15, was one of three people convicted of the murder of Garry Newlove.
How do 11 people go to jail for one murder?
Newlove was killed by a kick to the neck by one of a group of local teenagers, who attacked him after he accused them of vandalising his car. Cunliffe argues that although he was present, he never touched Newlove — a claim supported by the fact that he suffers from a degenerative eye condition, and was registered as blind at the time.
Cunliffe remains in prison. There could be more than 1, similar cases. The government does not collect statistics on joint enterprise; officially, a joint-enterprise murder is just another murder, and it is difficult to be sure whether or not prosecutions are becoming more common.Britain's Youngest Serial Killer James Fairweather, 15, Murdered James Attfield and Nahid Almanea
But one studyby The Bureau of Investigative Journalism TBIJfound that between and1, people were prosecuted for homicides involving four or more defendants. Joint enterprise has also come under increasing scrutiny in recent years because of a growing body of academic research that appears to show it is applied disproportionately against black defendants.
According to one study, black people are serving time under joint enterprise at 11 times their presence in the population as a whole. All of these issues have been at the forefront of a campaign to reform joint enterprise law, led by Jengba Joint Enterprise Not Guilty By Associationa group representing the family members of nearly 1, people locked up under joint enterprise.
One defendant might throw a few punches without intending that anybody should use a knife. Should their commission of assault imply their guilt of murder? In their study, TBIJ found countless examples of people incarcerated for murder or manslaughter in situations like these. Thirty-seven of 43 lawyers interviewed by TBIJ expressed concern about the way the law operates.
In a study of the cases of people under 26 who were given sentences of 15 years or more, researchers at Cambridge University found that those convicted under joint enterprise comprised more than half of their sample, and observed a stark pattern in the composition of this group: Black and mixed-race people are already over-represented in the criminal justice system, as a report by David Lammy MPindocumented in painful detail.
But even taking their disproportionate presence in the system as a baseline, black and mixed-race prisoners convicted under joint enterprise were over-represented by a factor of three in the Cambridge study. But the patterns found in the Cambridge study have been frequently reproduced by other researchers.
It seems there is something different about joint enterprise.
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A Prison Reform Trust study of 61 joint-enterprise cases involving defendants found that for defendants whose ethnicity was known, around two-thirds were from ethnic minorities. Almost two-thirds were under Similar disproportionality has been found by researchers at Manchester Metropolitan University.
Ethnic-minority joint-enterprise prisoners are younger than their white counterparts when convicted, are tried with a larger number of co-defendants and serve longer sentences. All 11 of those convicted in the Moss Side case are black or mixed-race. The youngest was 14 at the time of the attack, and the oldest was Their family members say that the academic research confirms their fear that their loved ones have been convicted in part because of the colour of their skin. The jury must be made to understand how a fractured and sometimes confusing evidential picture, involving multiple participants with different types and levels of involvement, should be assembled.
After years of growing controversy, a landmark supreme court decision in February appeared to set a stringent new standard for joint enterprise convictions. Instead, the prosecution would have to show that a defendant also intended for the crime to be committed. Campaigners and legal scholars hoped this would put an end to disproportionate joint enterprise convictions, but the successful prosecution of the Moss Side case has cast this into doubt.
In terms of the number of defendants, the Moss Side case was one of the largest ever joint enterprise murder trials.
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According to the prosecution, there was only one way to assemble the pieces of the story: As the judge explained in his directions to the jury: Greater Manchester Police In order to be found guilty under joint enterprise, a defendant must meet two criteria: AP A witness described what happened during the singer's final moments.
She said she watched as the killer walked towards the former Voice contestant as she reached out to greet him with a hug. She was talking to fans and taking pictures. The [killer] in front of us was walking up to meet her.
Her arms were open, waiting to greet him with a hug. Destiny Rivera "I had made friends in line with some other fans and my group were talking to them. Two people were meeting Christina and there was one guy in front of us in line.
People had brought balloons to the show and the security guards were popping them so at first I thought it was that. He was there by himself, looking around and moving, like he was trying to find something to do because he was on his own. He looked kind of creepy. Destiny Rivera "I saw Christina's leg fall to the side on the ground like a dead weight. I didn't see her face. I turned and started running, then I heard another pop.
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