Susan B. Anthony: Celebrating "A Heroic Life" | RBSCP
She, along with women such as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was a There are several versions of why Howe wrote the poem, which she hoped Howe seriously considered a divorce, but stuck with the marriage despite. On January 8th, , Susan B. Anthony and George Francis Train launched the first is considered as significant as Susan B. Anthony's and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's, In education, in marriage, in religion, in everything, disappointment is the lot of women. Here's the final stanza of one such poem. Phillis Wheatley, Poems on Various Subjects, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony · Lucy Stone's Marriage Protest · Sojourner Truth, "Ain't I a .
Anthony and Stanton soon became close friends and co-workers, forming a relationship that was pivotal for them and for the women's movement as a whole.
One of Stanton's biographers estimated that over her lifetime, Stanton spent more time with Anthony than with any other adult, including her own husband.
Anthony excelled at organizing, while Stanton had an aptitude for intellectual matters and writing. Anthony was dissatisfied with her own writing ability and wrote relatively little for publication. When historians illustrate her thoughts with direct quotes, they usually take them from her speeches, letters and diary entries. One of Anthony's biographers said, "Susan became one of the family and was almost another mother to Mrs.
Anthony prodded and Stanton produced. Gordona professor of women's history. A woman with a drunken husband had little legal recourse even if his alcoholism left the family destitute and he was abusive to her and their children.
If she obtained a divorce, which was difficult to do, he could easily end up with guardianship of the children. Anthony and some other women immediately walked out and announced a meeting of their own, which created a committee to organize a women's state convention.
Largely organized by Anthony, the convention of women met in Rochester in April and created the Women's State Temperance Society, with Stanton as president and Anthony as state agent. She organized a hearing on that law before the New York legislature, the first that had been initiated in that state by a group of women.
At the organization's convention the following year, however, conservative members attacked Stanton's advocacy of the right of a wife of an alcoholic to obtain a divorce. Stanton was voted out as president, whereupon she and Anthony resigned from the organization.
For nothing which they have attempted, not even to secure the suffrage, have they been so abused, condemned and antagonized. Teachers' conventions When Anthony tried to speak at the New York State Teachers' Association meeting inher attempt sparked a half-hour debate among the men about whether it was proper for women to speak in public. Finally allowed to continue, Anthony said, "Do you not see that so long as society says a woman is incompetent to be a lawyer, minister, or doctor, but has ample ability to be a teacher, that every man of you who chooses this profession tacitly acknowledges that he has no more brains than a woman.
One opponent called the idea "a vast social evil Stanton had helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention ina local event that was the first women's rights convention. InAnthony attended her first National Women's Rights Convention, which was held in Syracuse, New Yorkwhere she served as one of the convention's secretaries.
A major hindrance to the women's movement was a lack of money. Few women at that time had an independent source of income, and even those with employment generally were required by law to turn over their pay to their husbands. InAnthony worked with William Henry Channingher activist Unitarian minister, to organize a convention in Rochester to launch a state campaign for improved property rights for married women, which Anthony would lead.
She took her lecture and petition campaign into almost every county in New York during the winter of despite the difficulty of traveling in snowy terrain in horse and buggy days.
Noting cases in which the petition had been signed by both husbands and wives instead of the husband signing for both, which was the standard procedurethe committee's official report sarcastically recommended that the petitioners seek a law authorizing the husbands in such marriages to wear petticoats and the wives trousers. The legislature rolled back much of this law inhowever, during a period when the women's movement was largely inactive because of the American Civil War.
Anthony resisted at first, feeling that she was needed more in the field of anti-slavery activities. After organizing a series of anti-slavery meetings in the winter ofAnthony told a friend that, "the experience of the last winter is worth more to me than all my temperance and woman's rights work, though the latter were the school necessary to bring me into the antislavery work.
Anthony presided at the convention, and when the planning committee for national conventions was reorganized, Stanton became its president and Anthony its secretary. Anti-slavery activities Inat age 16, Anthony collected petitions against slavery as part of organized resistance to the newly established gag rule that prohibited anti-slavery petitions in the U. An entry in her diary in read, "Fitted out a fugitive slave for Canada with the help of Harriet Tubman.
Anthony InAnthony agreed to become the New York State agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society with the understanding that she would also continue her advocacy of women's rights. Immediate and Unconditional Emancipation. Mob action shut down her meetings in every town from Buffalo to Albany in early In Rochester, the police had to escort Anthony and other speakers from the building for their own safety.
In a speech inAnthony said, "Let us open to the colored man all our schools Let us admit him into all our mechanic shops, stores, offices, and lucrative business avocations Extend to him all the rights of Citizenship. The women's movement depended heavily on abolitionist resources, with its articles published in their newspapers and some of its funding provided by abolitionists. Inwhen Anthony sheltered a woman who had fled an abusive husband, Garrison insisted that the woman give up the child she had brought with her, pointing out that the law gave husbands complete control of children.
Anthony reminded Garrison that he helped slaves escape to Canada in violation of the law and said, "Well, the law which gives the father ownership of the children is just as wicked and I'll break it just as quickly. In a letter to Lucy StoneAnthony said, "The Men, even the best of them, seem to think the Women's Rights question should be waived for the present. So let us do our own work, and in our own way.
Constitution that would abolish slavery. It was the first national women's political organization in the United States. Anthony was the chief organizer of this effort, which involved recruiting and coordinating some petition collectors.
She headed back east after she learned that an amendment to the U. Constitution had been proposed that would provide citizenship for African Americans but would also for the first time introduce the word "male" into the constitution.
Anthony supported citizenship for blacks but opposed any attempt to link it with a reduction in the status of women.
Her ally Stanton agreed, saying "if that word 'male' be inserted, it will take us a century at least to get it out. Its drive for universal suffragehowever, was resisted by some abolitionist leaders and their allies in the Republican Partywho wanted women to postpone their campaign for suffrage until after it had been achieved for male African Americans.
Horace Greeleya prominent newspaper editor, told Anthony and Stanton, "This is a critical period for the Republican Party and the life of our Nation I conjure you to remember that this is 'the negro's hour,' and your first duty now is to go through the State and plead his claims.
Wendell Phillipsan abolitionist leader who opposed mixing those two causes, blocked the funding that the AERA had expected for their campaign. Anthony and Stanton created a storm of controversy by accepting help during the last days of the campaign from George Francis Traina wealthy businessman who supported women's rights.
Train antagonized many activists by attacking the Republican Party and openly disparaging the integrity and intelligence of African Americans. One wing, whose leading figure was Lucy Stone, was willing for black men to achieve suffrage first and wanted to maintain close ties with the Republican Party and the abolitionist movement.
The other, whose leading figures were Anthony and Stanton, insisted that women and black men should be enfranchised at the same time and worked toward a politically independent women's movement that would no longer be dependent on abolitionists. The AERA effectively dissolved after an acrimonious meeting in Mayand two competing woman suffrage organizations were created in its aftermath. It focused primarily on women's rights, especially suffrage for women, but it also covered other topics, including politics, the labor movement and finance.
Its motto was "Men, their rights and nothing more: Anthony managed the business aspects of the paper while Stanton was co-editor along with Parker Pillsburyan abolitionist and a supporter of women's rights. Initial funding was provided by George Francis Trainthe controversial businessman who supported women's rights but who alienated many activists with his political and racial views.
In the aftermath of the Civil Warmajor periodicals associated with the radical social reform movements had either become more conservative or had quit publishing or soon would. Moreover, Train sailed for England after The Revolution published its first issue and was soon jailed for supporting Irish independence.
After twenty-nine months, mounting debts forced Anthony to transfer the paper to Laura Curtis Bullarda wealthy women's rights activist who gave it a less radical tone. The paper published its last issue less than two years later.
It also helped them promote their wing of the movement, which eventually became a separate organization. During a printers' strike inAnthony voiced approval of an employer-sponsored training program that would teach women skills that would enable them in effect to replace the strikers. Anthony viewed the program as an opportunity to increase employment of women in a trade from which women were often excluded by both employers and unions.
At the next NLU Congress, Anthony was first seated as a delegate but then unseated because of strong opposition from those who accused her of supporting strikebreakers. She accomplished more in her work with the joint campaign by the WWA and The Revolution to win a pardon for Hester Vaughna domestic worker who had been found guilty of infanticide and sentenced to death.
Charging that the social and legal systems treated women unfairly, the WWA petitioned, organized a mass meeting at which Anthony was one of the speakers, and sent delegations to visit Vaughn in prison and to speak with the governor. Vaughn was eventually pardoned.Have Fun with history and learn about Susan B. Anthony. Here's a Susan B. Anthony for Kids Video
Its members formed the core of the New York City portion of the new national suffrage organization that Anthony and Stanton were in the process of forming. The hostile nature of their rivalry created a partisan atmosphere that endured for decades, affecting even professional historians of the women's movement. Constitutionwhich would prohibit the denial of suffrage because of race.
In one of her most controversial actions, Anthony campaigned against the amendment. She and Stanton called for women and African Americans to be enfranchised at the same time. They said that by effectively enfranchising all men while excluding all women, the amendment would create an "aristocracy of sex" by giving constitutional authority to the idea that men were superior to women. Indebate about the Fifteenth Amendment was made irrelevant when that amendment was officially ratified.
Indisgust with corruption in government led to a mass defection of abolitionists and other social reformers from the Republicans to the short-lived Liberal Republican Party. The AWSA, which was especially strong in New Englandwas the larger of the two organizations, but it began to decline in strength during the s. Gordon"Susan B. Anthony occupied new social and political territory. She was emerging on the national scene as a female leader, something new in American history, and she did so as a single woman in a culture that perceived the spinster as anomalous and unguarded By the s, she was among the senior political figures in the United States.
She did not draw a salary from either it or its successor, the NAWSA, but on the contrary used her lecture fees to fund those organizations. A married woman at that time had the legal status of feme covertwhich, among other things, excluded her from signing contracts her husband could do that for her, if he chose.
As Anthony had no husband, she was a feme sole and could freely sign contracts for convention halls, printed materials, etc. With the press treating her as a celebrity, she proved to be a major draw. Travel conditions in the earlier days were sometimes appalling. Once she gave a speech from the top of a billiard table. On another occasion her train was snowbound for days, and she survived on crackers and dried fish.
Anthony Both Anthony and Stanton joined the lecture circuit aboutusually traveling from mid-autumn to spring. The timing was right because the nation was beginning to discuss women's suffrage as a serious matter. Occasionally they traveled together but most often not. Lecture bureaus scheduled their tours and handled the travel arrangements, which generally involved traveling during the day and speaking at night, sometimes for weeks at a time, including weekends.
Their lectures brought new recruits into the movement who strengthened suffrage organizations at the local, state and national levels. Their journeys during that decade covered a distance that was unmatched by any other reformer or politician. Anthony portrait, This fruit knife is engraved with Susan B. It is perhaps the one given to her as a Christmas gift in by her niece Lucy.
On January 20, Susan B. She also sends suggested wording for the call to the upcoming International Council of Women. The American Equal Rights Association was formed in as a coalition between woman's rights and anti-slavery organizations.
Its purpose was to agitate for universal suffrage. Anthony traveled throughout the country on the lecture circuit to pay off the debts she incurred while publishing The Revolution. She finally paid off the last dollar in May Until she lectured under the agency of Henry Slayton.
On page 8 she describes how excessive reading as a child caused her eyes to turn inward, a condition that explains her preference for being photographed in profile.
On pages she gives her recollections of moving to Rochester and the farm. Anthony, who was then headmistress of the Female Department at the Canajoharie Academy, did not attend the conventions.
Susan B. Anthony - Wikipedia
Her parents and sister Mary, however, were present at the Rochester meeting and signed petitions in support of the resolutions. In women were ignored in the preparations for the centenary celebration of the nation.
In response the National Woman Suffrage Association opened Centennial Headquarters in Philadelphia to make their presence known and to make it clear that women were still "denied the exercise of their natural right of self-government.
During the last months of and the beginning ofAnthony and Stanton organized a series of meetings throughout the state "to adopt measures to engraft the principle of universal suffrage upon the constitution of the state. Notice that workingwomen were offered free tickets. Adelaide Johnson created portrait busts of Susan B. She later incorporated the busts into a large sculpture entitled "The Woman Movement" that now stands in the rotunda of the United States Capitol.
As she did so often when such referendums were held in various states, Susan B. Anthony spent months leading the campaign in favor of the amendment. Once again she was disappointed when the referendum lost by a substantial majority. Gold stickpins owned by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Anthony; edited with Stanton The Revolution. Suffragist; organized the National Woman Suffrage Association convention in ; testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in In Susan B.
Anthony, accompanied by her sister Mary, traveled to Portland, Oregon to attend the National American Woman Suffrage Association annual convention where this photograph was taken. Anthony writes Mary Lewis Gannett on August 15, soliciting a letter of endorsement for Ida Wells Barnett and her anti-lynching campaign. Elizabeth Cady Stanton writes Susan B. Anthony from England on March 10, giving her thoughts on what Anthony should do to prepare for the International Council of Women including what it should be called she preferred International Federationwhere it should be held she preferred New Yorkand how long each speaker should speak twenty minutes.
She cautions Anthony to "not get up more machinery than you can manage. Here Stanton writes that she plans to manage a religious session at the Council and will have as speakers those who share her liberal religious views such as Matilda Joslyn Gage, Helen Gardner, Clara Neymann, and her daughter Harriot Stanton Blatch.
A "Religious Symposium" was held the last day of the Council, but it was Anthony, and not Stanton, who presided. In Anthony became dissatisfied with teaching and returned to Rochester to help manage the farm. Frederick Douglass who moved to Rochester in to begin publishing his newspaper The North StarWilliam Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and other abolitionists and reformers often visited the farm and their fervent discussions of the events of the day soon turned her interest to reform work.
Anthony writes Amy Post on February 14, about the upcoming vote in Kansas on two separate amendments: Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Matilda Joslyn Gage wrote a Declaration of Rights to be read at the official proceedings, but their request to present it was denied. Undaunted, Anthony and four other women decided to go ahead with their plan.
The women then proceeded back down the aisle while scattering printed copies of the Declaration to the audience. Then, in front of Independence Hall, Susan B.
Anthony read the Declaration to a receptive crowd. Anthony traveled to Colorado where a suffrage referendum was to appear on the ballot. The previous year her sister Hannah Anthony Mosher had gone to Colorado in hopes that the climate would improve her tuberculosis.
Four years earlier another sister, Guelma Anthony McLean, also succumbed to tuberculosis. In this October 4, letter to her brother-in-law Eugene Mosher, Anthony writes from Colorado that she has met many of the people who knew Hannah while she was there and of her regrets that speaking obligations prevented her from accompanying Hannah to Colorado. Anthony also writes that her mother, who would die inis not well. Stanton and Anthony traveled throughout Kansas on behalf of the woman suffrage amendment.
When their old allies in the abolitionist movement and the Republican Party offered no financial support, they accepted the help of George Francis Train, a wealthy, flamboyant, eccentric Democrat who many abolitionists and suffragists considered a "raving lunatic" for his racist views. After the referendum was defeated in Kansas, Train sponsored a lecture tour by Stanton, Anthony, and himself.
This is a ticket for their appearance at Corinthian Hall in Rochester on December 2, It was Stanton who convinced Anthony that women could not be effective reformers without the right to vote. It was the beginning of a friendship and a working relationship that was to last for over half a century.
The news greatly distressed Susan B. Anthony who feared that this new responsibility would distract Avery's attention from working for the woman suffrage movement. She expresses her concern in this letter to the baby. The month before she died, Susan B. Already ill when she left Rochester, she was only present at a few sessions, but she did make an appearance at the celebration to honor her 86th birthday.
She could not make a formal speech, but she thanked the officers of the national association and then recognized that, "There have been others also just as true and devoted to the cause--I wish I could name every one--but with such women consecrating their lives, failure is impossible. California Congressmanand Senator ; married to Ellen Clark Sargent, a suffragist; introduced in the Senate a Constitutional amendment for woman suffrage in Anthony died at Program for Susan B.
Anthony and Emma Biddlecom Sweet, She managed many of the details for the International Council of Women and was instrumental in bringing about the reconciliation between the National and the American suffrage associations.
Merger discussions began in and several members of the American group, including Lucy Stone, participated in the International Council. As evident in this November 11, letter from Anthony to Avery, the negotiations did not always go smoothly and old animosities did not die easily.
When the merger finally occurred in Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Matilda Joslyn Gage and other members of the National were dismayed, for they feared that the newly reunited organization would adopt the more conservative social and religious agenda of the American association. Even though Stanton continued to serve as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association untilshe attended few of their meetings.
Ida Husted Harper, a suffragist and journalist from Indiana first met Anthony in during the unsuccessful California suffrage campaign.
Harper had been in charge of press relations and Anthony, impressed with her efforts, asked Harper to become her official biographer.
The advertisement states "this is the only authentic biography of her that ever can be written, as the letters and documents will not be accessible to other historians.
The Revolution first appeared on January 8, with Susan B. The paper's articles and editorials reflected their radical views on issues affecting the political, social, sexual, economic, and educational status of women.
Shortly after the first issue appeared George Francis Train left for Ireland where he was soon jailed for his support of the Fenian cause. This was Susan B.
Anthony read a letter from Elizabeth Cady Stanton who was about to give birth to her fifth child and not able to attend. Sargent introduced the bill on January 10, The following week this satirical drawing appeared in Puck. Although Lucy Stone is included, it is highly unlikely, as leader of the rival American Woman Suffrage Association, that she would have joined the flock.
In the winter of Susan B.
‘Women, Their Rights, and Nothing Less’: Literary Activists of the Woman’s Suffrage Movement
Anthony inaugurated a petition campaign to secure for married women the right to retain their own wages and equal guardianship of their children. In she presented to the New York State Legislature petitions containing 10, signatures. In this letter to George W. In May Susan B. Anthony sailed for London to attend a meeting of the International Council of Women.
Anthony presided over 8 of the 16 sessions. Anthony and other suffragists once again appeared before a Senate Judiciary Committee to speak on behalf of a sixteenth amendment. Anthony forcefully presented the reasons why women, as American citizens, should look to the Federal government for enfranchisement and not depend on the legislatures or voters of individual states.
Anthony attended the Congress where her resolutions for an eight-hour day and equal pay for equal work were adopted, but not her resolution in support of woman suffrage.
Kates Class of was one the University of Rochester women students who served as an honorary pallbearer at the funeral of Susan B. Mary Anthony presented this plaster medallion to Kates as a remembrance of the occasion. Universalist minister; canvassed in Kansas and New York with Anthony and Stanton on behalf of suffrage referendums in ; active in the suffrage movement in Wisconsin; opposed merger of the suffrage organizations in Abolitionist, author, editor, lecturer; active in the Sanitary Commission during the Civil War; suffrage organizer in Illinois and Massachusetts; suffrage and temperance speaker.
Before the funeral began the church doors were opened to give people the opportunity to pay their last respects. The newspaper estimated that between Anthony with Jean Brooks Greenleaf, ca On February 15, a large gathering of Susan B.
The poem Phoebe Cary wrote for the occasion was published in Rochester as a keepsake. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was unable to attend, wrote this poem "to her life-long friend and co-worker" in which she reminisces about their many years together. Because the convention refused to accept the credentials of the women delegates or allow them to speak, the women and their supporters adjourned to the Wesleyan Chapel where they held their own meeting.
It is one of her earliest addresses. Anthony wrote on September 18, to the feminist author and suffragist Elizabeth Oakes Smith about her book Bertha and Lily. The University of Rochester was founded in as an all-male institution. In the s, women began to petition the University to open its doors to female students.
At this crucial point, Susan B. Anthony took charge of collecting the remaining money. Anthony pledged her life insurance policy, thus guaranteeing the admission of women to the University of Rochester in the fall of Wright and women from nineteen states met to form the National Woman Suffrage Association; an organization dedicated to adding an amendment to the federal Constitution that would give women the vote.
Unlike the NWSA, they avoided controversial issues and put their efforts into winning state suffrage referendums. The split in the suffrage movement lasted for the next twenty years. This painting by Sarah James Eddy is thought to be a study for a larger portrait which is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.