The Importance of Friendship Although relationships with parents determine in Analysis of a Relationship Friendships come and go but finding a best friend. I think the poem was also meant to teach about love, friendship, trust, because that's what the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. The relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu is essentially a partnership of equals. Enkidu is both a loyal friend and a civilizing influence on Gilgamesh.
The Epic Comic Book of Gilgamesh
Most adaptations might trim as needed, and to that degree the Dixons' comic resembles Robert Crumb's word-for-word adaptation of the Book of Genesis. The Epic of Gilgamesh also literally resembles it, since Crumb is one of Kevin Dixon's many artistic influences. The style is aggressively cartoonish—down to characters' foreheads spraying drops of plewds when anxious and bursts of emanata when literally glowing with triumph. Crumb is most present in Dixon's masterfully detailed cross-hatching, and though some of his figures are roughly reminiscent of Crumb too, their anatomy is closer to Matt Groening's The Simpsons.
But the epic's opening supervillain is Gilgamesh himself: Enkidu may be closer to a superhero since he's created in answer to the people's prayers for a savior.
But despite his good intentions, Enkidu is no match and soon is submitting to Gilgamesh too. But maybe that was the gods' secret plan, since Gilgamesh stops abusing his kingdom and instead teams-up with his near-equal for death-defying adventures.
For no reason but want of glory, they head off to battle the monstrous Hambaba and return with his head and a forest of cedar trees. Even here, Hambaba—despite Kevin Dixon's abundantly monstrous depictions—seems almost like a victim, a guardian of a beautiful natural landscape plundered by invaders.
At least when the goddess Ishtar, furious after Gilgamesh rejects her sexual advances, releases the Bull of Heaven onto the kingdom, the heroes' violence is protective and so actually heroic. Still, after Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh is sincerely heart-broken, but his attempt to reach the underworld isn't about releasing or even visiting Enkidu's soul.
It's about securing immortality for himself. While that mission is unheroically self-serving, it also ends in failure—a paradoxical victory for the forces of good, since Gilgamesh, though now permanently depressed, also seems to have finally accepted his role as a just and noble king.
That entails a wide range of very specific choices made panel by panel. Kevin Dixon sometimes defaults to what pioneering comics scholar Scott McCloud terms a "duo-specific" relationship between words and pictures. For example under the caption "Your statue, he will set at the left of his throne: When the text states that Urshanabi ran "striking his head with his fist", Dixon adds a talk bubble "Nooooo!!
His art is more engaging when it instead interprets the accompanying language. When the "revels ran late into the night", Dixon draws Gilgamesh with a pot on his head and Enkidu passed-out and dreaming of urinating—images that fit the otherwise generic "revels" by expanding them with greater visual specificity.
Some interpretations even playfully contradict what's presumably the text's intended meanings. When a god warns that "You will have the legions of the dusty dead sitting down to dinner with the living," Dixon draws a zombie attack, even adding his own talk bubble content: When "Before the alter of Shamash they laid the offering, placing the heart on top," Dixon's Enkidu exclaims "Yum!
Sometimes the art contradicts too—though not to any clearly communicated effect. Since his name, meaning "seven-fold hero" or "hero par excellence," 4 is Cassite and foreign to Uruk 5he must represent the foreign Cassite invader. Because his mother is the goddess Ninsun, he is two-thirds a god. Historically, in the Sumerian king lists, a king named Gilgamesh ruled Uruk in the First Dynasty in the third millennium. Once king of Uruk, Gilgamesh quickly establishes himself as a tyrant, an abuser of power.
When he conscripts the young men of the city to build fortifications to protect Uruk and forces the young women of the city to join him in the royal bedchamber by imposing the droit de seigneur, the people of Uruk appeal to the gods to end his oppression. Believing his tyranny stems from loneliness, the gods create a being named Enkidu, half-man, half-animal, to be his friend. A hunter spots Enkidu running wild in the steppes with the beasts of the field and reports him to Gilgamesh, saying the wild man has been destroying his traps.
Gilgamesh sends a temple harlot from Uruk to seduce Enkidu in the open fields.
The Epic Comic Book of Gilgamesh - PopMatters
After she does, the animals will no longer run with him, sensing he has now changed, and the harlot takes him to a farmhouse, where she shaves and clothes him.
Now he has become like a man. The story of a primitive man created from clay and seduced and civilized by a woman resembles the Hebrew story of Adam and Eve. After the harlot brings Enkidu to Uruk, Enkidu meets Gilgamesh, who is about to enjoy his droit de seigneur with another man's bride. Outraged, Enkidu fights him. After each tests the other's mettle in combat and is surprised to discover an equal, the two heroes stop fighting and shake hands.
Becoming fast friends, they grow to love one another like brothers. But restless Gilgamesh, not content with ruling as king, wants to accomplish a glorious feat that future generation will remember him for as a hero. He wants to be immortal—as a figure in an historical legend, as a character in a story which, in terms of metafiction, he is already. When he asks Enkidu to help him slay Humbaba, an ogre who guards a sacred cedar grove, Enkidu, familiar with Humbaba, warns that the mighty giant can kill them easily.
Why are you worried about death? Only the gods are immortal anyway, Sighed Gilgamesh. If Gilgamesh, as seems certain, is a Cassite, the conflict between him and Khumbaba would represent a rivalry between Cassite and Elamite hordes for the possession of Uruk and of the surrounding district.
While the Cassites do not come to the front till the eighteenth century [B. Out of friendship, Enkidu accompanies Gilgamesh to the grove, but when Enkidu pushes the gate open, paralysis strikes his hand. With Enkidu's help, Gilgamesh slays Humbaba. But as they prepare to return to Uruk, Ishtar the love goddess, admiring Gilgamesh's might and handsome looks, offers herself to him.
He spurns her, pointing out how she has wronged all her previous lovers, who were brave soldiers and great heroes which may have been the Mesopotamian way of pointing out how love ruins fighting men. In revenge she asks her father, Anu, king of the gods, to send the Bull of Heaven to destroy Gilgamesh and Enkidu. He does, and after the Bull of Heaven, a symbol for the storm 13charges out of the sky and kills men with two snorts, the two heroes dispatch it duly.
When Enkidu rips off the Bull's thigh or phallus, depending on the translationand hurls it into Ishtar's face, she demands that the gods kill the two for defiance. Not only did they deliberately slay Humbaba, the divine guardian of the grove, they slew the Bull of Heaven and obscenely insulted a goddess. The gods decide it will be Enkidu who dies, since Gilgamesh is two-thirds divine. Enkidu dies a long, lingering death which Herbert Mason identifies as possible cancer.
In his last words, he curses the harlot who seduced and civilized him. She made me see Things as a man, and a man sees death in things. That is what it is to be a man. Why, O Enkidu, cursest thou the harlot-lass, Who made thee eat food fit for divinity, And gave thee to drink wine fit for royalty, And clothed thee with noble garments, And made thee have fair Gilgamesh for a comrade?
Even he, a king and two-thirds god, has a third that can die. To forestall death, he strikes out in search for the secret of immortality. Rejecting civilization because he believes it caused Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh sets out into the wilderness in a rite of passage—a heroic quest in search of the secret of immortality. They have placed his encounter with the scorpion men at Mount Mashu perhaps a symbol of a Cassite expedition into that region and identified the sea he had to cross as the Arabian Sea.
Gilgamesh, whither rovest thou? The life thou pursuest thou shall not find.
When the gods created mankind, Death for mankind they set aside, Life in their own hands retaining. Thou, Gilgamesh, let full be thy belly. Make thou merry by day and by night. Of each day make thou a feast of rejoicing, Day and night dance thou and play. Let thy garments be sparkling fresh, Thy head be washed; bathe thou in water.
Pay heed to the little one that holds on to thy hand, Let thy spouse rejoice in thy bosom! For this is the task of mankind!The Truth About Oprah Winfrey And Gayle King Relationship 2018
At last he finds the only living immortals, Utnapishtim, the Babylonian Noah, and his wife. When the god Enlil planned to drown the city of Shurrippak for disobedience, just as God wiped out Sodom and Gomorrah 19 and drowned the world in the Flood, the god Enki warned Utnapishtim and his wife, who built a great ship, thereby escaping the Deluge when the rains got out of control and inundated the world.
After the waters subsided, Enki awarded Utnapishtim and his wife immortality for their righteousness. Besides symbolizing the overflow of the Euphratesthe Mesopotamian Deluge story demonstrates that Enki is a good god who aids mankind, while Enlil is a bad one who strives to destroy it.
The two cults were rivals. Thanking him, Gilgamesh hurries off, and at the riverbank, he dives to the bottom, where he locates and plucks the herb. Back on the bank, he sets the magic plant down a moment while he rests, when along slithers a snake that swallows it, causing the serpent to shed its skin as it crawls away. As in the story of the Garden of Eden, a serpent bests the hero. Heartbroken, his quest a failure, all his rigors for nothing and doomed to die, Gilgamesh trudges back to Uruk.
But standing before its gates, he notices the walls, the walls his people slaved to build, and He looked at the walls, Awed at the heights And for a moment—just a moment— All that lay behind him Passed from view.
That hope may not have satisfied Gilgamesh, but with it he is forced to be content. The epic suggests that Gilgamesh became a tyrant because of loneliness, which is cured by the friendship of Enkidu. Without a doubt the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu is one of the great male friendships of the literature of the ancient world, reminding one of Achilles and Patroclus, and David and Jonathan.
Ultimately he loses his life because of aiding his friend. When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh goes temporarily mad with grief. With his final breath, Enkidu delivers a bitter pronouncement about the painful loss of a loved one. You'll know When you have lost the strength to see The way you once did. You'll be alone and wander Looking for that life that's gone or some Eternal life you have to find.
He drew closer to his friend's face. My pain that is my eyes and ears No longer see and hear the same As yours do.
Your eyes have changed.