The Swiss Reformation: Calvin, Zwingli
Here we will briefly examine the perspectives of Luther and Zwingli on In his Confession Concerning Christ's Supper, Martin Luther laid out. The leading participants at the meeting, Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, John Oecolampadius, Martin Bucer, and Huldrych Zwingli, held preliminary. Because he was a friend of both Luther and Zwingli, he brought the Central to the debate was the nature of Christ's presence in the The Wittenberg reformer knew this, which is why he didn't want to meet in the first place.
He took his monastic vows in and was ordained a priest in At this time, Luther also was studying theology at the University of Wittenburg and in he received his doctorate.
Luther began to see how this might be applied in a biblical capacity — the need to examine the scriptures from the original Hebrew and Greek texts and discover their true meaning. Martin Luther Despite all the hard work and effort, Luther struggled with the weight of his own sinfulness. Though I lived as a monk without reproach, I felt that I was a sinner before God with an extremely disturbed conscience. I could not believe that he was placated by my satisfaction. I did not love, yes, I hated the righteous God who punishes sinners, and secretly, if not blasphemously, certainly murmuring greatly, I was angry with God.
Martin Luther However at some point betweenthere came a spiritual breakthrough: Whilst studying Romans 1: The just shall live by faith. There I began to understand that the righteousness of God is that by which the righteous lives but a gift of God, namely by faith.
Martin Luther The church of the day was very much concerned with the doctrine of Indulgences, that is, reducing or removing entirely the temporal penalty for sin, whether in this life or in Purgatory. The system was abused, most notably by Johan Tetzel, a Monk who was charged by the Pope to sell indulgences in Germany.
The Marburg Colloquy - History Learning Site
The monies raised were, amongst other things, being used partly to fund the rebuilding of St. As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. Johan Tetzel On seeing the corruption before him, Luther felt forced to take action. To present discussion points in this way was an accepted practice of the time, but Luther did not and could not anticipate the reaction to what he had written. View or download the 95 Theses in PDF format.
The 95 theses were printed and circulated around Germany and soon reached other parts of Europe. At this point, Pope Leo X took notice of developments and Luther was summoned to appear before him in After a change of heart, the Pope instead sent Cardinal Thomas Cajetan to meet with Luther and demand that he recant his views.
Luther refused and in a public debate at Leipzig instated publicly that he could no longer accept papal supremacy. Exsurge Domine demanded that Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses to avoid the possible threat of excommunication from the church.
Luther decided to publicly burn the Bull in December and was then issued with another Bull in January Decet Romanum Pontificembringing the excommunication into force.
In August Luther published his work To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, which outlined his plans for the reform of the church in Germany.Ulrich Zwingli & The Reformation in Switzerland
Baptism and Holy Communion. He was granted safe conduct there by Frederick the Wise, prince of Saxony. Arriving there in AprilLuther was given one more chance to recant.
Luther at the Diet of Worms However, when asked to do so, Luther replied: Unless I am convicted by Scripture and plain reason, I do not accept the authority of popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other, my conscience is captive to the Word of God.
I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Martin Luther With these words the breach with the Roman Catholic church became permanent, an edict was issued declaring Luther a heretic, and his writings were banned.
Luther fled before the Diet ended and decided to hide in the Wartburg Castle at Eisenach. He spent a year there working on a translation of the bible into German. In Luther returned to Wittenburg, where he carried out several reforms. Printed, as opposed to verbal, ideas could travel fast and in a environment when many were desperate for change, a form of reformation was indeed inevitable.
Once reform had started, the course it was to take was less inevitable. To many, the Papacy had been slow to respond, firstly to the demands for reform and secondly, once the Reformation had begun, to provide a robust response.
Although Luther had initiated the Reformation, he could not control it and precisely how reform was to take place and what was to be reformed would be keenly debated by the Reformers themselves in the years following Luther did not wish to leave the Catholic church, rather his initial aim was to reform it. Yet, if reform was being resisted or delayed, separation would be the result, as he argued that the Reformation would restore to the church a biblically correct doctrine of salvation.
The Renaissance, with its new ideas and models of learning played a large part in the demands for reform. A growing sense of individualism against clericalism and the right for any individual to read and understand the scriptures for themselves against the control of the church was again a powerful stimulus. However, Luther chose not to support them, partly because of the brutality of the revolt and also because he relied on the support and protection of the nobility.
In fact, Luther lost credibility in advocating a ruthless suppression to end the uprising. InLuther married Katharina von Boraa former nun.
His decision to do so set a seal of approval on clerical marriage. The marriage itself resulted in six children. My Katie is in all things so obliging and pleasing to me that I would not exchange my poverty for the riches of Croesus. Of the fifteen points presented, all were agreed bar one: The year saw the publication of the Augsburg Confession, a statement of Lutheran doctrine. The confession was mostly edited by Philipp Melanchthon. Apart from his theological writings, Luther wrote several anti-semitic works which have stimulated much discussion among historians.
Modern Lutherans have rejected his views, which to a modern ear sound harsh and unforgiving. Suffering with ill health for many years, Luther eventually died on 18 February at Eisleben and was buried in Wittenburg. His last words include a striking statement written in both German and Latin: So Luther was outlawed, but this remained without effect because Luther was protected by Frederick the Wise.
Trying to rely on power alone and failing to resolve the obvious and severe problems of the medieval church by arguments and by real reforms, the emperor inevitably got what he had wanted to prevent: In Luther's German translation of the New Testament was published. At the time there was no standard German language, but rather a large variety of dialects.
Luther's bible translation had an important influence on unifying the German language, but in regions remaining catholic this did not take place until the late 18th century when poets like Goethe and Schiller used Luther's standard language.
In Germany, many dukes adhered to the reformed beliefs, monasteries were closed and church property nationalized. Luther married a former nun in Many priests did likewise, according to St. When Luther came out in with his sharp polemic de servo arbitrio against the humanistic conviction that every person has a free will described by Erasmus of Rotterdam: De libero arbitriomany humanists turned away from Luther and his reformation.
The Reformers of Switzerland: By the reformation was firmly established in the city of Zurich. It was Farel that had done most for the spreading of the reformation in French-speaking Switzerland, but John Calvin is better known for his doctrine Christianae Religionis Institutiopublished in Basel, and for the strict organization of the church in Geneva where Farel had failed. The doctrines as well as the organization of the reformed church by John Calvin influenced reformed churches all over the world, especially in the Netherlands, in Scotland and in the United States of America.
The Reformers – Introduction to Protestantism
While Zwingli and Luther could not find a common position in the question of the interpretation of the Lord's Supper, John Calvin and Henry Bullinger Zwingli's successor after his early death in came to an agreement in Confessio Helvetica Posterior. The expansion of the Swiss Reformation The Reformation spread from Zurich to the rural areas dominated by Zurich and to other parts of eastern and northern Switzerland very quickly.
The followers of Zwingli established the Reformation in the city of St. Gallenin BerneSchaffhausenGlarus, in the outer district of Appenzell and in Toggenburg. But Zwingli did not only attack the corruption of the church, he was also an embittered opponent of mercenary troops soldiers fighting professionally in the service of a foreign power.
- Marburg Colloquy Failed to Reach Consensus
- Marburg Colloquy
- Luther and Zwingli on the Lord’s Supper
Mercenary troops were a most lucrative business for central Switzerland, however, and there was barely any other business chance available in this over-populated region at the time.
Zwingli's strict opposition to mercenary troops was based on his own experience as an army chaplain with Swiss troops in northern Italy. No doubt this controversy was a major reason why central Switzerland did not adhere to the reformed beliefs. On a Swiss conference on the reformation in Baden Aargau the rural regions remaining catholic were still in a majority. In Basel, Zwingli's friend John Oekolampadius could introduce the Reformation in a single church while others remained Catholic.
By there was a reformed majority of citizens, but the city council still hesitated and was forced with weapons to introduce the new beliefs in all churches of Basel. Altars and pictures in the churches were destroyed with raw force in most reformed areas of Switzerland. Some fresco paintings on church walls were simply painted over with white color and have been restaurated in the second half of the 20th century.
In Grisons south-eastern Switzerland three political alliances had been established towards the end of the 14th century. These alliances united against the secular [wordly, political] authority of the bishop of Chur in Many communities in Grisons joined the Reformation until The Bernese government gave permission to the Frenchman Guillaume Farel de Gap in to preach in the Vaud region western Switzerland, subject partly to the dukes of Savoy, partly to Berne.
Luther Zwingli was more radical than Luther in many points. Though both agreed that the catholic church had emphasized too much the administration of the seven sacraments [ritual celebrations thought to be showing and effecting the grace of God in a person] and that only two could be found in the Gospel. But while Luther accepted everything in church tradition that was not explicitly contrary to the scriptures, Zwingli interpreted Luther's principle sola scriptura: Zwingli said that every ritual not explicitly mentioned in the Bible should be abolished, and so he did with five of the seven sacraments - only Baptism and the Lord's Supper were kept up in Switzerland's Reformed Churches.
While Luther wrote himself dozens of hymns to transport the protestant convictions into the hearts of believers, the Swiss churches regarded hymns as unscriptural and provided metrical translations of the Psalms instead.
Still more controversial was the interpretation of the Lord's Supper: Both Luther and Zwingli agreed that the catholic mass celebrated in latin language untilso that common people would not understand] was a source of much popular superstition and both wished to eliminate the notion of sacrifice as if the church could contribute anything to salvation as completely contrary to the reformed principle of sola gratia [all salvation due to God's grace alone].
But while Luther, being a pious man aware of his roots on the countryside, still belived in the mysterious real presence of Christ in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper, Zwingli as an intellectual sharply distinguished the material from the spiritual and was horrified of the idea that "physical objects might be the vehicles of spiritual gifts. Martin Bucer -the reformer of Strasbourg, tried to reconcile Luther and Zwingli and to finde a common protestant platform at a conference in Marburg in Zwingli and his friend Oekolampad from Basel stuck to their purely symbolic interpretetation of the Lord's Supper as a memorial and thanksgiving, but not as a means of grace.
Why should the Bible text "This is my body" be taken more literally than other sayings of Jesus like "I am the door" or "I am the vine"? He could not regard the Swiss as faithful men.
But it was given in an indissoluble conjunction with them - as the bread is given to the body, so the divine gift passes into the faithful soul. Therefore Luther was right in contending that an objective gift was offered to the communicant, and Zwingli was right in contending that the faithless man could receive nothing but bread.
Chadwick, Reformationp. The Anabaptists The Reformation encouraged also that everybody would read the Bible himself instead of just listening to sermons and would have his own thoughts about it.
In Zurich, a community of Anabaptists was founded. The Anabaptists did not accept baptism of children but insisted on a deliberate decision of every single adult person to become a member of the christian church.
Adults who converted to these beliefs were baptized once again. Zwingli did not support this view and the city council of Zurich banned the Anabaptists in Some of their leaders were even executed and remaining banned from the city.
So the new protestant freedom was not so big, evidently